The Inca Empire at its zenith stretched along the Andes from the very south of Colombia, down through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and northwest Argentina.
It all began in the agricultural region of Cusco, Peru. The iconic Machu Picchu is several days’ trek from Cusco, probably built as an estate for the first Inca emperor Pachacuti (1438–1472). Never discovered by Spanish conquerors, and thus covered in vegetation when revealed to the world in 1911, its location is undoubtedly fit for royalty.
In the saddle of two adjoining mountains inside a U-turn bend of the Urubamba river, surrounded by mountain ranges on all sides, Machu Picchu was built for security as well as beauty. The distinctive peak of Huayna Picchu is regularly bathed in morning mist from the river below, and having only two access points, the site was easily defended.