Carnival has an ethnic flavor in the Sierra Norte (northern Andes). There are mestizo, indigenous and Afro-Ecuadorian celebrations. In the town of Peguche, near Otavalo, the Kichwa fiesta known as Pawkar Raymi features 11 days (February to early March) of crafts fairs, sports competitions and music. One of the rituals is called tumarina. It’s kind of a baptism with water and flower petals.
Pawkar Raymi means the Fiesta of the Flowering (of the crops). It’s a time to give thanks to Pacha Mama for her bounty. This is also the time of the year when indigenous merchants and musicians who work overseas come home to be with their families. It’s estimated that 10,000 Otavaleños earn their living abroad. They are considered the country’s cultural ambassadors. They usually stay for up to two months.
One of the women who accompanied the dancers at Inti Raymi in Cotacachi, Ecuador. She had a certain nobility about her. The number of beaded necklaces is a sign of status in the community. Elderly women tend to have more necklaces because they are considered the wisest. It can also be a sign of social/economic status.
The Inti Raymi celebration goes on for more than a week in Cotacachi, northern Ecuador. It begins with a ritual bath at Cuicocha, a volcanic crater lagoon. Children are the first to dance, then men dance for four days, then women dance. This all goes on around Cotacachi’s main square.
Inti Raymi is the Festival of the Sun and occurs every year during the June solstice. The celebration is to honor the Inca sun god (Inti) for the heat and energy that allows plants to grow. It is the most important of the four sacred festivals (Raymi) celebrated by indigenous Andean cultures, which exist in Ecuador and all the way down to Argentina/Chile.
Monkeys are similarly abundant on either side of Ecuador’s central Andes mountain range. Following on from last week’s blog on inhabitants of the Amazon jungle, we’ll now look at four species of the Pacific coastal regions. The following text is adapted from the Ministry of Tourism’s official observation guide, Primates of Ecuador.
Brown-headed Spider monkeys [Ateles fusciceps] – Also known as bracilargo (long arms) or chuba (Afro-Ecuadorian), these measure from 31-63cm (without tail). It lives in primary or old secondary forests, where it prefers tall, thick trees with wide treetops and overlapping branches. These features provide it with good visibility of the forest and rapid traveling. You might also find it on the ground eating clays in salt licks, which are natural mineral deposits that exist in nutrient-poor ecosystems. It can travel up to 3 kilometers (1.86 miles) per day; its body is well designed for this. It has a complex social organization that consists in groups that stick together or separate depending on food availability. Larger groups travel in times of abundant fruit.
Monkeys are equally prevalent on either side of Ecuador’s central Andes mountain range, and in next week’s blog we’ll look at species resident in the Pacific coastal region. Below, five inhabitants of the Amazon region are summarised. The following text is adapted from the Ministry of Tourism’s official observation guide, Primates of Ecuador.
Squirrel monkeys [Saimiri sciureus] – Also known as mono payaso (clown monkey) or mono soldado (soldier monkey), these measure from 25-32cm (without tail). It lives in primary and degraded forests, near water bodies. It moves a few feet above the ground where vegetation is dense, branches are thin and lianas (vines) abound. It may descend to the ground to look for invertebrates which represent a large proportion of its diet. It is very active, spending most of the day moving around.
Frigatebirds are some of the most iconic inhabitants of the Galapagos Islands, especially when dramatically inflating their red gular sacs to attract mates. When not breeding or caring for young, however, they can be well out of sight — soaring up to 2.5 miles high in the air!
This would be impressive for any seabird, but the truly amazing fact is that frigatebirds have been tracked by GPS flying continuously (without any rest) for 56 days! Averaging 260 miles per day with 400 miles possible in perfect conditions, that would be a global round-trip in 95 days.
Most seabirds (albatrosses, petrels, sulids, etc.) glide for maximum efficiency. A frigatebird’s heartrate when soaring at altitude, flapping once every 6 minutes, is similar to when resting in a nest. Updraft currents allow them to ride upwards before swooping, in rollercoaster fashion.